Abduction and adduction – refers to motions that move a structure away from or towards the centre of the body.
Abduction refers to a motion that pulls a structure or part away from the midline of the body. In the case of fingers and toes, it refers to spreading the digits apart, away from the centerline of the hand or foot. Abduction of the wrist is also called radial deviation. For example, raising the arms up, such as when tightrope-walking, is an example of abduction at the shoulder. When the legs are splayed at the hip, such as when doing a star jump or doing a split, the legs are abducted at the hip.
Adduction refers to a motion that pulls a structure or part toward the midline of the body, or towards the midline of a limb. In the case of fingers and toes, it refers to bringing the digits together, towards the centerline of the hand or foot. Adduction of the wrist is also called ulnar deviation. Dropping the arms to the sides, or bringing the knees together, are examples of adduction.
Absolute intensity. The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. See Fitness Questions – Intensity for more information.
Aerobic physical activity. Activity in which the body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time. Aerobic activity, also called endurance activity, improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Examples include walking, running, and swimming, and bicycling.
Balance. A performance-related component of physical fitness that involves the maintenance of the body’s equilibrium while stationary or moving.
Balance training. Static and dynamic exercises that are designed to improve individuals’ ability to withstand challenges from postural sway or destabilizing stimuli caused by self-motion, the environment, or other objects.
Baseline activity. The light-intensity activities of daily life, such as standing, walking slowly, and lifting lightweight objects. People who do only baseline activity are considered to be inactive.
Bone-strengthening activity. Physical activity primarily designed to increase the strength of specific sites in bones that make up the skeletal system. Bone strengthening activities produce an impact or tension force on the bones that promotes bone growth and strength. Running, jumping rope, and lifting weights are examples of bone-strengthening activities.
Core. Exercises known as CORE exercises are those that target the muscles that stabilize and move the spine. There are inner and outer core muscles and these protect the spine as it moves in any direction.
Deltoid. The muscle that forms the rounded contour of the shoulder. Anatomically, it appears to be made up of three distinct sets of fibers.
Duration. The length of time in which an activity or exercise is performed. Duration is generally expressed in minutes.
Ergonomics. The science of designing a job, equipment and/or workplace to fit the worker. The goal is to optimize the “fit” between each worker and his or her work environment to optimize performance and reduce the risk of repetitive strain injuries
Exercise. A subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive and purposive in the sense that the improvement or maintenance of one or more components of physical fitness is the objective. “Exercise” and “exercise training” frequently are used interchangeably and generally refer to physical activity performed during leisure time with the primary purpose of improving or maintaining physical fitness, physical performance, or health.
Flexibility. A health- and performance-related component of physical fitness that is the range of motion possible at a joint. Flexibility is specific to each joint and depends on a number of specific variables, including but not limited to the tightness of specific ligaments and tendons. Flexibility exercises enhance the ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion.
Flexion and extension describe movements that affect the angle between two parts of the body.
Flexion describes a bending movement that decreases the angle between a segment and its proximal segment. For example, bending the elbow, or clenching a hand into a fist, are examples of flexion. When sitting down, the knees are flexed. When a joint can move forward and backward, such as the neck and trunk, flexion refers to movement in the anterior direction. Flexion of the shoulder or hip refers to movement of the arm or leg forward.
Extension is the opposite of flexion, describing a straightening movement that increases the angle between body parts. When a joint can move forward and backward, such as the neck and trunk, extension refers to movement in the posterior direction. For example, when standing up, the knees are extended. Extension of the hip or shoulder moves the arm or leg backward. When the chin is against the chest, the head is flexed, and the trunk is flexed when a person leans forward.
Frequency. The number of times an exercise or activity is performed. Frequency is generally expressed in sessions, episodes, or bouts per week.
Health. A human condition with physical, social and psychological dimensions, each characterized on a continuum with positive and negative poles. Positive health is associated with a capacity to enjoy life and to withstand challenges; it is not merely the absence of disease. Negative health is associated with illness, and in the extreme, with premature death.
Health-enhancing physical activity. Activity that, when added to baseline activity, produces health benefits. Brisk walking, jumping rope, dancing, playing tennis or soccer, lifting weights, climbing on playground equipment at recess, and doing yoga are all examples of health-enhancing physical activity.
Intensity. Intensity refers to how much work is being performed or the magnitude of the effort required to perform an activity or exercise. See Measuring Physical Activity for more.
Lifestyle activities. This term is frequently used to encompass activities that a person carries out in the course of daily life and that can contribute to sizable energy expenditure. Examples include taking the stairs instead of using the elevator, walking to do errands instead of driving, getting off a bus one stop early, or parking farther away than usual to walk to a destination.
Metabolism – Chemical changes within the body that create the energy and substances you need to grow, move and maintain your health.
Moderate-intensity physical activity. On an absolute scale, physical activity that is done at 3.0 to 5.9 times the intensity of rest. On a scale relative to an individual’s personal capacity, moderate-intensity physical activity is usually a 5 or 6 on a scale of 0 to 10. See Measuring Physical Activity for more information.
Muscle-strengthening activity (strength training, resistance training, or muscular strength and endurance exercises). Physical activity, including exercise that increases skeletal muscle strength, power, endurance, and mass.
Pelvis. The lower part of the body between the abdomen and the thighs.
Physical activity. Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level. In these Guidelines, physical activity generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health.
Physical fitness. The ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and respond to emergencies. Physical fitness includes a number of components consisting of cardio-respiratory endurance (aerobic power), skeletal muscle endurance, skeletal muscle strength, skeletal muscle power, flexibility, balance, speed of movement, reaction time, and body composition.
Progression. The process of increasing the intensity, duration, frequency, or amount of activity or exercise as the body adapts to a given activity pattern.
Prone position is a body position in which one lies flat with the chest facing down and back facing up. The supine position is the 180° contrast.
Relative intensity. The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. See Measuring Physical Activity for more.
Repetitions. The number of times a person lifts a weight in muscle-strengthening activities. Repetitions are analogous to duration in aerobic activity.
Strength. A health and performance component of physical fitness that is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force.
Supine position means lying with the face and torso facing up, as opposed to the prone position, which is face down.
Vigorous-intensity physical activity. On an absolute scale, physical activity that is done at 6.0 or more times the intensity of rest. On a scale relative to an individual’s personal capacity, vigorous-intensity physical activity is usually a 7 or 8 on a scale of 0 to 10. See Measuring Physical Activity for more.
Sources: Wikipedia and NIH